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Some experiments and calculations of rubber roller husker had been carried out in order to explore the mechanisms involved in husking rice grains using this method. A simple sliding friction rig with load cell and high-speed camera was used to observe the mechanisms that occur during husking. The husking performance of different rubbers was compared for changes in the applied normal load. It was found that grains rotate between the rubber counterfaces on initial motion before being husked. In addition, harder rubbers were found to husk a higher proportion of entrained grains at lower applied normal load. By measuring the coefficient of friction between rice and rubber samples, the shear force required to husk a given percentage of grains could be calculated and was shown to be constant regardless of rubber type. Based on the mechanism seen in the high-speed video, it was evident that there was a limiting shear stress that was the governing factor over the husked ratio.


Several machines have been recently developed to reduce mechanical damage during shelling. Use of relatively soft material, like rubber, instead of steel for the rasp bar and for the cylinder,is one of them. Reduction of kernel damage suffered by the crop other than corn has also been the prime objectives of several developments for threshing of seeds and grains. Some of these attempts are of interest to this study both because of their similarity in material and con figuration to the mechanism used for shelling of corn.

Airbag is widely used in heavy equipment dropped field with its efficient cushion performance and low cost. The calculation method used now for the process of airbag landing mainly is simulative calculation: analytical analysis and finite element simulation, but there are less systematic introduction for the mathematical model behind these methods in past papers.


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Performance analysis of experimental impeller and rubber roller husker was carried out using three different varieties of rice namely; Akitakomachi (short grain), Delta (long grain) and L201 (long grain). Impeller husker speed was varied from 1400 to 3300 rev/min and rubber roll husker clearance was varied from 0.4 to 2.4 mm. In rubber roll husker, rough rice was husked randomly and as single grain vertically and horizontally.

For both huskers, variation of husked ratio with specific husking energy was well expressed by the Weibull's distribution function. Husking energy efficiency, system cracked ratio and system broken ratio curves were well expressed by the empirical equations. The three performance parameters were used to optimize the husking performance of the two huskers for the three varieties of rice. Rubber roll husker had high husking energy efficiency compared to impeller husker for randomly husked short grain rice and for all the three varieties of rice husked as single grain. Optimal husked ratio in terms of husking energy efficiency was also found to be optimal in terms of system cracked ratio and system broken ratio for all the three varieties of rice.

Rice is a major crop in Iran, where rice production increased from 1.3 Mt in 1980 to 3.5 Mt in 2007. The main rice cultivated areas are located in the northern parts of the country, producing 75% of Iran's rice crop. Both local and improved varieties are cultivated in the rice growing regions of the country. Milling, an important processing step of paddy (rough rice), is usually done to produce milled and polished grain. A typical rice milling system is a multi-stages process where the paddy is first subjected to dehusking by using a husker and then to removed of brownish outer layer, known as whitening. One of the major problems of rice industry is breakage of kernels during milling. As cooking quality of broken rice is very poor, the market value with broken grain is much less than that for whole grains.

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